Sunday, September 14, 2008

Minister of Public Security of the People's Republic of China

The Minister of Public Security of the People's Republic of China is a high level official of the government. The minister is in charge of the , which is responsible for law enforcement, public safety and the police force in China. It should not be confused with the which is the primary Chinese intelligence and security agency.

Process of appointment

According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the Minister is nominated by the and confirmed by the National People's Congress or its .

List of Ministers

*Luo Ruiqing : October 1949 - September 1959
*Xie Fuzhi : September 1959 - March 1972
* 1972-1973
*Hua Guofeng 1973 - March 1977
*Zhao Cangbi March 1977 - April 1983
*Liu Fuzhi May 1983 - August 1985
*Ruan Chongwu September 1985 - March 1987
* April 1987 - November 1990
*Tao Siju December 1990 - March 1998
*Jia Chunwang March 1998 -2002
*Zhou Yongkang December 2002 - October 2007
*Meng Jianzhu October 2007-

List of Vice Presidents of China

This is a list of all Vice President of the Republic of China and Vice President of the People's Republic of China .

Vice Presidents of the Republic of China

Vice Presidents of the People's Republic of China

Information Office of the State Council

The Information Office of the State Council is an administrative office under the , the chief administrative body of the People's Republic of China. It appears to be the chief information office of the Chinese government.

Government of the People's Republic of China

Power within the government of the People's Republic of China is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the People's Liberation Army. This article is concerned with the formal structure of the state, its departments and their responsibilities. All positions of significant power in the state structure and in the army are occupied by members of the Communist Party of China which is controlled by the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, a group of 5 to 9 people, usually all men, who make all decisions of national significance. As the role of the Army is to enforce these decisions in times of crisis, support of the PLA is important.


The PRC Constitution was first created on September 20, 1954. Before that, an interim Constitution-like document created by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference was in force.

The 2nd and 3rd promulgations of the PRC Constitution took place against the backdrop of the Cultural Revolution. The 2nd promulgation in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, and contained Communist slogans and revolutionary language throughout. The role of courts was slashed, and the Presidency was gone. The 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the just-gone-by Cultural Revolution. It also, for the first time, mentioned the issue of Taiwan and declared that the PRC would "liberate" it.

The current Constitution is the PRC's 4th promulgation. On December 4, 1982, it was promulgated and has served as a stable Constitution for over 20 years. The role of the Presidency and the courts were normalized, and under the Constitution, all citizens were equal. Amendments were made in 1988, 1993, 1999, and most recently, in 2004, which recognised private property, safeguarded human rights, and further promoted the non-public sector of the economy.

National People's Congress

The National People's Congress is the highest state body and only legislative house in the People's Republic of China. Although the membership of the NPC is still largely determined by the Communist Party of China, since the early 1990s it has moved away from its previous role as a symbolic but powerless rubber-stamp legislature, and has become a forum for mediating policy differences between different parts of the Party and the government. For the NPC to formally defeat a proposal put before them is a rare, but not non-existent event, and the NPC has been quite active in being the forum in which legislation is debated before being put to a vote.
China is a rubber ear


The President and vice president are elected by the National People's Congress for five-year terms. The President is the head of state. The office was created by the 1982 Constitution. Formally, the President is elected by the National People's Congress in accordance with Article 62 of the Constitution. In practice, this election falls into the category of 'single-candidate' elections. The candidate is recommended by the Presidium of the National People's Congress.
Currently the President of China is Hu Jintao and the Vice President is Xi Jinping.

State Council

The State Council is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is appointed by the National People's Congress and is chaired by the and includes the heads of each governmental department and agency. There are about 50 members in the Council. In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army. The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains an interlocking membership with the top levels of the Communist Party of China creating a fused center of power.

Central Military Commission

The Central Military Commission exercises the command and control of the People's Liberation Army and is supervised by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. The state CMC is nominally considered the supreme military policy-making body and its chairman, elected by the National People's Congress, is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In reality, command and control of the PLA, however, still resides with the Central Military Commission of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee—the 'party CMC'.

Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate

The Supreme People's Court is the highest court in the judicial system of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court. The judges of the Supreme People's Court are appointed by the National People's Congress.

The Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest agency at the national level responsible for prosecution in the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate judicial systems, based on common law traditions and Portuguese legal traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the SPP.

Provincial and local government

The governors of China's provinces and autonomous regions and mayors of its centrally controlled municipalities are appointed by the central government in Beijing after receiving the nominal consent of the National People's Congress . The Hong Kong and Macau special administrative regions have some local autonomy since they have separate governments, legal systems, and basic constitutional laws, but they come under Beijing's control in matters of foreign affairs and national security, and their chief executives are handpicked by the central government. Below the provincial level in 2004 there were 50 rural prefectures, 283 prefecture-level cities, 374 county-level cities, 852 county-level districts under the jurisdiction of nearby cities, and 1,636 counties. There also were 662 cities , 808 urban districts, and 43,258 township-level regions. Counties are divided into townships and villages. While most have appointed officials running them, some lower-level jurisdictions have direct popular elections. The organs of self-governing ethnic autonomous areas —people's congresses and people's governments—exercise the same powers as their provincial-level counterparts but are guided additionally by the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy and require NPC Standing Committee approval for regulations they enact "in the exercise of autonomy" and "in light of the political, economic, and cultural characteristics of the ethnic group or ethnic groups in the areas."

General Administration of Customs

The General Administration of Customs is an administrative agency within the government of the People's Republic of China. It is responsible for the collection of value added tax , customs duties, excise duties, and other indirect taxes such as air passenger duty, climate change levy, insurance premium tax, landfill tax and aggregates levy. It is also responsible for managing the import and export of goods and into China. The current Minister of the Administration is Sheng Guangzu.

GAC guards the borders of China from smugglers and is therefore dedicated to keeping illegal products outside of Chinese borders. It also regulates what can leave China and is partially responsible for who can enter or leave the country.

Court system of the People's Republic of China

The Chinese court system is based on , modeled after the legal systems of Germany and France.


According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982 and the Organic Law of the People's Courts that went into effect on January 1, 1980, the Chinese courts are divided into a :

*At the highest level is the Supreme People's Court in Beijing, the premier appellate forum of the land, which supervises the administration of justice by all subordinate "local" and "special" people's courts. It is the court of last resort for the whole People's Republic of China except for Macao and Hong Kong, which, as a Portuguese-descended civil law jurisdiction and British-descended common law jurisdiction, have separate judicial systems.

*Local people's courts—the courts of the first instance—handle and cases. These people's courts make up the remaining three levels of the court system and consist of "high people's courts" at the level of the provinces, autonomous regions, and special municipalities; "intermediate people's courts" at the level of prefectures, autonomous prefectures, and municipalities; and "basic people's courts" at the level of autonomous counties, towns, and municipal districts.

* comprises the Military Court of China , Railway Transport Court of China and Maritime Court of China , and forestry.

The court system is paralleled by a hierarchy of prosecuting offices called people's procuratorates, the highest being the Supreme People's Procuratorate.

Hong Kong and Macau have separate court systems.

History of court structure and process

Between the Anti-Rightist Campaign of 1957 and the legal reforms of 1979, the courts—viewed by the leftists as troublesome and unreliable—played only a small role in the judicial system. Most of their functions were handled by other party or government organs. In 1979, however, the National People's Congress began the process of restoring the judicial system. The world was able to see an early example of this reinstituted system in action in the showcase trial of the Gang of Four and six other members of the "Lin-Jiang clique" from November 1980 to January 1981 . The trial, which was publicized to show that China had restored a legal system that made all citizens , actually appeared to many foreign observers to be more a political than a legal exercise. Nevertheless, it was intended to show that China was committed to restoring a judicial system.

The , abolished in 1959, was re-established under the 1979 legal reforms to administer the newly restored judicial system. With the support of local judicial departments and bureaus, the ministry was charged with supervising personnel management, training, and funding for the courts and associated organizations and was given responsibility for overseeing legal research and exchanges with foreign judicial bodies.

The 1980 Organic Law of the People's Courts and the 1982 established four levels of courts in the general administrative structure. Judges are elected or appointed by people's congresses at the corresponding levels to serve a maximum of two five-year terms. Most trials are administered by a collegial bench made up of one to three judges and three to five assessors. Assessors, according to the State Constitution, are elected by local residents or people's congresses from among citizens over twenty-three years of age with political rights or are appointed by the court for their expertise. Trials are conducted in an inquisitorial manner, in which both judges and assessors play an active part in the questioning of all witnesses. After the judge and assessors rule on a case, they pass sentence. An aggrieved party can appeal to the next higher court.

The Organic Law of the People's Courts requires that adjudication committees be established for courts at every level. The committees usually are made up of the president, vice presidents, chief judges, and associate chief judges of the court, who are appointed and removed by the standing committees of the people's congresses at the corresponding level. The adjudication committees are charged with reviewing major cases to find errors in determination of facts or application of law and to determine if a chief judge should withdraw from a case. If a case is submitted to the adjudication committee, the court is bound by its decision. The Supreme People's Court stands at the apex of the judicial structure. Located in Beijing, it has jurisdiction over all lower and special courts, for which it serves as the ultimate appellate court. It is directly responsible to the National People's Congress Standing Committee, which elects the court president.

China also has 'special' military, rail transport, water transport, and forestry courts. These courts hear cases of counter-revolutionary activity, plundering, bribery, sabotage, or indifference to duty that result in severe damage to military facilities, work place, or government property or threaten the safety of soldiers or workers.

Military courts make up the largest group of special courts and try all treason and espionage cases. Although they are independent of civilian courts and directly subordinate to the , military court decisions are reviewed by the Supreme People's Court. Special military courts were first established in 1954 to protect the special interests of all commanders, political commissars, and soldiers, but they ceased to function during the Cultural Revolution . Military courts and procuratorates were reinstituted in October 1978, and open military trials resumed in December of that year.

In April 1986, at the Fourth Session of the Sixth National People's Congress, the General Principles of the Civil Code was approved as "one of China's basic laws." Consisting of more than 150 articles, the code was intended to regulate China's internal and external economic relations to establish a stable base conducive to trade and attractive to . Many of its provisions define the legal status of economic entities and the property rights they exercise. The code clearly stipulated that private ownership of the means of production is protected by law and may not be seized or interfered with by any person or organization. It also recognizes partnerships and wholly foreign-owned or joint-venture enterprises.

Constitution of the People's Republic of China

The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is the highest law within the People's Republic of China. The current version was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982 with further revisions in 1988, 1993, 1999, and 2004. Three previous state constitutions--those of , , and --were superseded in turn. The Constitution has five sections: the preamble, general principles, the fundamental rights and duties of citizens, the structure of the state, and the and emblems of state.

1982 document

The 1982 document reflects Deng Xiaoping's determination to lay a lasting institutional foundation for domestic stability and modernization. The new State Constitution provides a legal basis for the broad changes in China's social and economic institutions and significantly revises government structure and procedures.

There have been four major revisions by the National People's Congress to the 1982 Constitution.

Much of the PRC Constitution is modelled after the 1936 Constitution of the Soviet Union, but there are some significant differences. For example, while the Soviet constitution contains an explicit right of secession, the Chinese constitution explicitly forbids secession. While the Soviet constitution formally creates a system, the Chinese constitution formally creates a unitary multi-national state.

The 1982 State Constitution is a lengthy, hybrid document with 138 articles. Large sections were adapted directly from the 1978 constitution, but many of its changes derive from the 1954 constitution. Specifically, the new Constitution deemphasizes class struggle and places top priority on development and on incorporating the contributions and interests of nonparty groups that can play a central role in modernization.

Article 1 of the State Constitution describes China as "a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship" meaning that the system is based on an alliance of the working classes--in communist terminology, the workers and peasants--and is led by the Communist Party, the vanguard of the working class. Elsewhere, the Constitution provides for a renewed and vital role for the groups that make up that basic alliance--the CPPCC, democratic parties, and mass organizations. The 1982 Constitution expunges almost all of the rhetoric associated with the Cultural Revolution incorporated in the 1978 version. In fact, the Constitution omits all references to the Cultural Revolution and restates Mao Zedong's contributions in accordance with a major historical reassessment produced in June 1981 at the Sixth Plenum of the Eleventh Central Committee, the "Resolution on Some Historical Issues of the Party since the Founding of the People's Republic."

There also is emphasis throughout the 1982 State Constitution on as a regulator of political behavior. Unlike the Constitution of the Soviet Union, the text of the Constitution itself does not explicitly mention the Communist Party of China and there is an explicit statement in Article 5 that states that the Constitution and law are supreme over all organizations and individuals.

Thus, the rights and obligations of citizens are set out in detail far exceeding that provided in the 1978 constitution. Probably because of the excesses that filled the years of the Cultural Revolution, the 1982 Constitution gives even greater attention to clarifying citizens' "fundamental rights and duties" than the 1954 constitution did, like the right to vote and to run for election begins at the age of eighteen except for those disenfranchised by law. The Constitution also guarantees the freedom of religious worship as well as the "freedom " and affirms that "religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign domination."

Article 35 of the 1982 State Constitution proclaims that "citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the , of , of association, of procession, and of demonstration." In the 1978 constitution, these rights were guaranteed, but so were the right to strike and the "four big rights," often called the "four bigs": to speak out freely, air views fully, hold great debates, and write big-character posters. In February 1980, following the Democracy Wall period, the four bigs were abolished in response to a party decision ratified by the National People's Congress. The right to strike was also dropped from the 1982 Constitution. The widespread expression of the four big rights during the student protests of late 1986 elicited the regime's strong censure because of their illegality. The official response cited Article 53 of the 1982 Constitution, which states that citizens must abide by the law and observe labor discipline and public order. Besides being illegal, practicing the four big rights offered the possibility of straying into criticism of the Communist Party of China, which was in fact what appeared in student wall posters. In a new era that strove for political stability and economic development, party leaders considered the four big rights politically destabilizing. Except for the ostentatious six democratic parties, Chinese citizens are prohibited from forming parties.

Among the political rights granted by the constitution, all Chinese citizens have rights to elect and be elected, as opposed to parallel clauses in the US constitution which forbids foreign-borns to be elected president among other limitations. However since direct election is confined to the village level, the electorial rights of the people are questioned by many critics. Other scholars argue that this is a form of Electoral College system. According to the later promulgated election law, rural residents have only 1/4 vote power of townsmen. As Chinese citizens are categorized into rural resident and town resident, and the constitution has no stipulation of freedom of transference, those rural residents are restricted by the Hukou and have less rights on politics, economy and education. This problem has largely been addressed with various and ongoing reforms of hukou in 2007.

The 1982 State Constitution is also more specific about the responsibilities and functions of offices and organs in the state structure. There are clear admonitions against familiar Chinese practices that the reformers have labeled abuses, such as concentrating power in the hands of a few leaders and permitting lifelong tenure in leadership positions. On the other hand, the constitution strongly oppose the western system of separation of powers by executive, legislature and judicial. It stipulates the NPC as the highest organ of state authority power, under which the State Council, the Supreme People's Court, and the Supreme People's Procuratorate shall be elected and responsible for the NPC.

In addition, the 1982 Constitution provides an extensive legal framework for the liberalizing economic policies of the 1980s. It allows the collective economic sector not owned by the state a broader role and provides for limited private economic activity. Members of the expanded rural collectives have the right "to farm private plots, engage in household sideline production, and raise privately owned livestock." The primary emphasis is given to expanding the national economy, which is to be accomplished by balancing centralized economic planning with supplementary regulation by the market.

Another key difference between the 1978 and 1982 state constitutions is the latter's approach to outside help for the modernization program. Whereas the 1978 constitution stressed "self-reliance" in modernization efforts, the 1982 document provides the constitutional basis for the considerable body of laws passed by the NPC in subsequent years permitting and encouraging extensive foreign participation in all aspects of the economy. In addition, the 1982 document reflects the more flexible and less ideological orientation of foreign policy since 1978. Such phrases as "proletarian internationalism" and "social imperialism" have been dropped.

2004 Amendments

The Constitution was amended on March 14, 2004 to include guarantees regarding private property and human rights This was argued by the government to be progress for Chinese democracy and a sign from CCP that they recognised the need for change, because the booming Chinese economy had created a new class of rich and middle class, who wanted protection of their own property.

Wen Jiabao was quoted by the Washington Post as saying, "These amendments of the Chinese constitution are of great importance to the development of China." "We will make serious efforts to carry them out in practice." But subsequently there was no clear indication that the changes were leading to increased protection for Chinese citizens in terms of human rights or property rights. Chinese people continue to be arrested for trying to challenge government decisions , even when using the law itself. The censure of the media is still in place, as can be seen by the closure of out-spoken publications, or re-staffing to remove editors and journalists who have annoyed officials, such as was the case with the Freezing Point magazine.

Constitutional Enforcement

There is no special organization established for the enforcement of constitution. Although in the constitution it stipulates that the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee have the power to review whether laws or activities violate the constitution.

Furthermore, under the legal system of the People's Republic of China, courts do not have the general power of judicial review and cannot invalidate a statute on the grounds that it violates constitution. Nonetheless, since 2002, there has been a special committee of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress which has reviewed laws and regulations for constitutionality. Although this committee has not yet explicitly ruled that a law or regulation is unconstitutional, in one case, after the subsequent media outcry over the death of Sun Zhigang, the State Council was forced to rescind regulations allowing police to detain persons without residency permits after the NPCSC made it clear that it would rule such regulations unconstitutional if they were not rescinded.

Civil Aviation Administration of China

The Civil Aviation Administration of China , formerly General Administration of Civil Aviation of China , is the under the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China. It oversees civil aviation in mainland China. As the aviation authority responsible for mainland China, it concluded civil aviation agreements with other aviation authorities, including those of the special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China.

The CAAC does not share the responsibility of managing China's airspace with the Central Military Commission under the regulations in the Civil Aviation Law of the People's Republic of China . Being subordinate to military traffic, non-commercial civil aviation is rather restricted. and private aviation in mainland China is relatively rare compared to developed countries.


CAAC was formed on November 2, 1949, shortly after the founding of the People's Republic of China, to manage all non-military aviation in the country, as well as provide general and commercial flight service . It was initially managed by the People's Liberation Army Air Force, but was transferred to the direct control of the State Council in 1980.

In 1987 the airline division of CAAC was divided up into a number of airlines, each named after the region of China where it had its hub. Since then, CAAC acts solely as a government agency and no longer provides commercial flight service.

In March 2008, the agency changed its name to Civil Aviation Administration of China and became a subsidiary of the newly created .

CAAC as an airline

CAAC began operating scheduled domestic flights to cities in China in 1949.
In 1962, CAAC began operating international services.

In 1987, CAAC split into 6 separate airlines. Air China , China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, China Northwest Airlines, China Northern Airlines and China Southwest Airlines, each named after the geographic region of the location of their headquarters and main operation areas.

CAAC used the IATA code CA on international flights only, domestic flights were not prefixed with the airline code.

CAAC aircraft livery featured Chinese national flag on the vertical stabilizer, with blue stripes and Chinese version of CAAC logo on a white fuselage.

CAAC's fleet In 1987:

*Airbus A300
*Airbus A310
*Antonov An-12
*Antonov An-24/Xian Y-7
*Antonov An-30
*BAe 146
*Boeing 707
*Boeing 737-200
*Boeing 747SP
*Boeing 747-200
*Boeing 757
*Boeing 767
*Hawker Siddeley Trident 2E
*Ilyushin Il-18
*Lockheed L-100 Hercules
*McDonnell Douglas DC-9
*McDonnell Douglas MD-82
*Tupolev Tu-154B
*Tupolev Tu-154M
*Vickers VC-10
*Vickers Viscount
*Yakovlev Yak-42

General aviation
*Harbin Y-11
*Harbin Z-5
*Mil Mi-8
*Shijiazhuang Y-5

Fleet retired before 1987

*Ilyushin Il-14
*Ilyushin Il-62
*Lisunov Li-2
*Lockheed L-188
*Shanghai Y-10
*Vickers Vanguard

Major incidents

*In May, 1972, A Lisunov Li-2 overshot the runway at Dalian Airport, killing 6 occupants.

*On August 26, 1976, An Ilyushin Il-14 crashed during landing In Chengdu, killing 12 Passengers.

*On April 26, 1982, CAAC Flight 3303, A Hawker Siddeley Trident2E, crashed into a mountain while on approach to Guilin, killing all 112 people on board.

*On December 24, 1982, a CAAC Ilyushin Il-18B burst into flames while on approach to Guangzhou, killing 25 of the 69 passengers on board.

*On May 5, 1983, a CAAC aircraft was hijacked and landed at a U.S. military base in South Korea. The incident marked the first direct negotiations between South Korea and China, which did not have formal relations at the time.

*On September 14, 1983, a CAAC Hawker Siddeley Trident2E collided with a fighter jet on takeoff from Guilin. 11 on board were killed.

*On January 18, 1985, a CAAC Antonov An-24 crashed on approach to Jinan, killing 38 of the 41 on board.

*On December 15, 1986, a CAAC Antonov An-24 crashed on approach to Lanzhou, killing 6 of the 37 on board.

Chinese City Management Administration and Implementation of Law

The Chinese City Management Administration and Implementation of Law , also known as Chengguan , is a government agency that has been established in every city in the People's Republic of China, whose officials are responsible for cracking down on unlicensed migrant workers. According to the BBC, "Ever since the agency came into existence 10 years ago, there have been repeated criticism of them using excessive force. This para-police force, equipped with steel helmets and stab-proof vests, is often used by local officials as trouble-shooters".

In general the Chengguan serve as an official agency employed by cities across China "to tackle low-level crime." However, the agency is widely disliked by the Chinese due to their alleged abuses of power.

China Travel Service

The China Travel Service is the tourism and travel agency of the government of the People's Republic of China. Its task is to market China to the rest of the world and to promote and develop its visitor economy. It is a sub-ministerial authority which is responsible to the China National Tourism Administration.

CTS was established on November 19, 1949 and growing out of Overseas Chinese Service founded in Xiamen, Fujian Province, is one of the first tour operators of China. In 1974, Overseas Chinese Service Head Office changed its name to China Travel Service Head Office. As the head enterprise of China Travel Service in the whole country, China Travel Service Head Office gradually developed from a travel agency whose main business focused on overseas Chinese, Chinese with foreign nationalities, Chinese from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan to a travel agency whose business consists of inbound tourism, outbound tourism, and domestic tourism.

Today it serves hundred of thousands tourists from home and abroad. It has joined the China Travel Association, the Pacific Asia Travel Association , the United States Tour Operators Association , the International Air Transport Association and the American Society of Travel Agents and became a full member of these associations. It has established close cooperative relations with hundreds of travel service providers of main tourism countries in the world.

CTS Head Office has become one of the largest travel agencies in China and its business scope covers the fields of travel service, hotel management, car rental, domestic and international trade, international cargo transportation and publication and others. It has established a comprehensive network centering on Beijing and covering other areas through Hong Kong and Macao China Travel Services.

China Securities Regulatory Commission

The China Securities Regulatory Commission is an institution of the of the People's Republic of China . It is the main regulator of the PRC.

Its functions are similar to that of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in the United States.

Among its responsibilities include:
* Formulating policies, laws and regulations concerning markets in and futures contracts.
* Overseeing issuing, trading, custody and settlement of equity shares, bonds, investment funds.
* Supervising listing, trading and settlement of futures contracts; futures exchanges; securities and futures firms.

The headquarters for the China Securities Regulatory Commission is in Beijing.
Focus Place 19, Jin Rong Street, West District Beijing 100032.

Organization Structure

*General Office
*Department of Public Offering Supervision
*Department of Market Supervision
*Departmentof Intermediary Supervision
*Department of Listed Company Supervision
*Department of Investment Fund Supervision
*Department of Futures Supervision
*Enforcement Bureau I
*Enforcement Bureau II
*Department of Legal Affairs
*Department of Accounting
*Department of International Cooperation
*Department of Personnel & Education
*Publicity Office of the CPC CSRC Committee
*Compliances Office
*CPC CSRC Committee
*Research Center
*Office of Branches Coordinating Committee
*Information Center
*Headquarter Service Center

China Post

China Post is the of the People's Republic of China operating on the . China Post is operated by the State Post Bureau of the People's Republic of China. The State Post Bureau, commonly referred to as China Post is both a regulatory authority and government owned enterprise. Thus it is responsible for the regulation of the national postal industry and the management of national postal enterprises.


The current postal service in the PRC was established in 1949. It replaced the Chunghwa Post in the Universal Postal Union in 1972. The postal service in China can be dated back to the Shang Dynasty. It was formerly administered by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications.

China Post is directly supervised by the State Post Bureau of the People's Republic of China which has overall responsibility for regulating postal service in China. The State Post Bureau is an agency reporting to the Ministry of Information Industry of the People's Republic of China.

Organizational Structure

China Post is organized along the following organizational structure.


* Postal offices and branches: 82,116
* Mail processing centers: 236
* First and second class trunk route: 3.1 million kilometers
* Transportation vehicles: 39,000
* Aircraft: 3
* Railway carriages: 73
* Letter sorting machines: 155
* Automatic parcel sorting machine: 209
* Computerized postal offices: 20,000

China Meteorological Administration

The China Meteorological Administration or CMA , headquartered in Beijing, is the national weather service for the People's Republic of China.


The agency was originally established in December 1949 as the the Central Military Commission Meteorological Bureau. In 1994 the CMA was transformed from a subordinate governmental body into one of the public service agencies under the .

Meteorological bureaus are established in 31 , and , excluding meteorological services at Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. 14 meteorological bureaus at sub-provincial cities including 4 cities which have been specifically designated in the state development plan), 318 meteorological bureaus at prefecture level and 2,300 bureaus at county level.

Subordinate bodies under the CMA

*National Meteorological Centre
*National Satellite Meteorological Centre
*National Climate Centre
*National Meteorological Information Centre
*Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
*Atmospheric Observation Technology Centre
*China Meteorological Administration Training Centre
*Department of Capital Construction & Real Estate Management
*Logistic Service Centre
*Audio-Visual Publicity Center
*China Meteorological News Press, and Meteorological Press.

China Maritime Safety Administration

The China Maritime Safety Administration serves as a coordinating body for maritime search and rescue in the territorial waters of the People's Republic of China.


* Haixun 31 Patrol Ship
* Haixun 21 Patrol Ship
* Haijing 31025
* Harbin Z-9 helicopter
* Eurocopter EC 135
* Changhe Aircraft Industries Corporation

China Insurance Regulatory Commission

The China Insurance Regulatory Commission, or CIRC, is an agency of China authorized by the to regulate the Chinese insurance products and services market and maintain legal and stable operations of insurance industry. It was founded on November 18, 1998, upgraded from a semi-ministerial to a ministerial institution in 2003, and currently has 31 local offices in every province except Taiwan.


The main functions of the CIRC is:


Internal Setup of the CIRC is:

*General Office
*Development and Reform Department
*Finance and Accounting Department
*Property Insurance Regulatory Department
*Personal Insurance Regulatory Department
*Insurance Intermediaries Regulatory Department
*Insurance Fund Management Regulatory Department
*International Department
*Legal Affairs Department
*Statistics and IT Department
*Local Offices Administration Department
*Personnel and Education Department
*Disciplinary Inspection Department

China Banking Regulatory Commission

The China Banking Regulatory Commission is an agency of China authorized by the to regulate the Chinese banking sector.

Main functions

*Formulate supervisory rules and regulations governing the banking institutions;
*Authorize the establishment, changes, termination and business scope of the banking institutions;
*Conduct on-site examination and off-site surveillance of the banking institutions, and take enforcement actions against rule-breaking behaviors;
*Conduct fit-and-proper tests on the senior managerial personnel of the banking institutions;
*Compile and publish statistics and reports of the overall banking industry in accordance with relevant regulations:
*Provide proposals on the resolution of problem deposit-taking institutions in consultation with relevant regulatory authorities;
*Responsible for the administration of the supervisory boards of the major State-owned banking institutions; and Other functions delegated by the State Council;

Supervisory focuses

*Conduct consolidated supervision to assess, monitor and mitigate the overall risks of each banking institution as a legal entity;
*Stay focused on risk-based supervision and improvement of supervisory process and methods;
*Urge banks to put in place and maintain a system of internal controls:
*Enhance supervisory transparency in line with international standards and practices。

Regulatory objectives

* Protect the interests of depositors and consumers through prudential and effective supervision;
* Maintain market confidence through prudential and effective supervision;
* Enhance public knowledge of modern finance though customer education and information disclosure;
* Combat financial crimes.

Supervisory and regulatory criteria

* Promote the financial stability and facilitate financial innovation at the same time;
* Enhance the international competitiveness of the Chinese banking sector;
* Set appropriate supervisory and regulatory boundaries and refrain from unnecessary controls;
* Encourage fair and orderly competition;
* Clearly define the accountability of both the supervisor and the supervised institutions; and
* Employ supervisory resources in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

Central People's Government

The Central People's Government is the central government of the People's Republic of China in Beijing. According to the , "''Central People's Government''" is synonymous with the .


In the first five years of the People's Republic , "''Central People's Government''" was the body with supreme power in the state. It was then composed of
* State Council
* People's Revolutionary Military Committee
* Supreme People's Court
* Supreme People's Procuratorate

Central Financial Work Commission

The Central Financial Work Commission was created in 1998 to supervise the financial system on behalf of the Chinese Communist Party and to prevent deviations on the part of CCP-appointed managers. It was proposed by the staff of the Central Finance and Economics Leading Group and pursued by Zhu Rongji with the support of Jiang Zemin and Li Peng. The CFCW had political supervision and personnel authority over the People's Bank of China and state financial regulatory bodies, as well as over China’s most important national firms.

The Central Financial Work Commission consisted of several core departments: the Organization Department, the Financial Discipline Inspection Work Commission and the Department of Supervisory Board Work. It had about 200 officials and was ranked above ministerial level. Its operations were supervised by Executive Deputy Secretary Yan Haiwang, and it regularly reported directly to its head, CFCW Secretary Wen Jiabao, who concurrently served as a member of the and as vice-premier in charge of work on finance. Wen was CFCW Secretary from 1998 until the organization’s demise in 2002. Some have interpreted this to be evidence of the fact that Wen was being groomed and tested for the position of premier, since he clearly lacked the experience to run effective financial policy. The CFCW facilitated comprehensive personnel reshuffles during its existence, particularly in 1999 and 2000.

The CFWC was abolished at the 16th Party Congress in late 2002, and most of its functions were transferred to state regulatory bodies. Sebastian Heilmann argues that the CFCW was created as part of a strategy to stop the breakdown of the hierarchies in the Chinese financial industry and to restore central policy decisiveness in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis. While this strategy was successful in establishing centralized supervision and homogenizing financial regulation, it failed to produce market-driven incentive structures for financial executives and clashed with nascent forms of corporate governance emerging in China. According to Heilmann, the dissolution of the CFCW constituted a major redefinition of Party control in economic regulation.


CTMO is contraction of China Trademark Office

With the approval of State Administration for Industry and Commerce , Trademark Office and Trademark Review and Adjudication Board under SAIC under SAIC jointly released “Trademark Examination Guidelines” and publicized it on “China Trademark Website” on December 31st.

In February 2004, CTMO started to revise “Trademark Examination Guidelines”, and a special team for the draft of guidelines was set up in March 2004. In the past two years, on the basis of “Trademark Examination Guidelines ” and “Notes on CTMO Trademark Examination Meeting” in recent three years as well as years of trademark examination practice, the draft team referred to trademark examination guidelines in such countries and regions as USA, France, Denmark and European Union, held about 40 discussions inside CTMO and four more discussions with TRAB, consulted USPTO and INTA began to collect public opinions on “China Trademark Website” from September 2005, and came to the final version of “Trademark Examination Guidelines”.

“Trademark Examination Guidelines” consists of seven parts, namely, examination of symbols which shall not be used as trademarks, examination of distinctiveness, examination of similar or identical trademarks, examination of three dimensional trademarks, examination of color trademarks, examination of collective and certification marks, examination of special signs. Among them, the first five provide interpretations for relevant legal provisions so that they are more instructive and operational; the latter two mainly benefit from relevant provisions in Measures on Registration and Administration of Collective and Certification Marks and Regulations on Special Signs.

The release of “Trademark Examination Guidelines” contributes greatly to unifying guidelines for trademark examination, review and adjudication, standardizing the operation and opening government affair concerning trademarks to the public.

1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China

The 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China was promulgated in 1978. This was the PRC's 3rd constitution, and was adopted at the 1st Meeting of the 5th National People's Congress on March 5, 1978, two years after the downfall of the Gang of Four.

The number of articles grew from the 1975 Constitution's 30 articles to double the amount. The courts and the procurates, which were minimised or dumped altogether in the 1975 Constitution of the People's Republic of China, were somewhat restored.

The 1978 Constitution was the first Constitution in the PRC to touch explicitly on the political status of Taiwan. It said that "Taiwan is part of China" and said that the PRC "must liberate Taiwan, and finish the great task of reunifying the motherland". However, in 1979, the PRC dropped the liberation stance and opted for peaceful reunification instead. Notice the usage of the word "China" in the 1978 Constitution; the 1982 Constitution mentioned that "Taiwan is a sacred part of the territory of the People's Republic of China" instead of just "China".

Citizen rights were also reinstated somewhat. The right to strike was still present, although it would be removed in the 1982 Constitution. However, the required support for the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the socialist system remained as part of citizens' duties.

However, the Constitution still suffered from the backdrop of the just-gone-by Cultural Revolution. Revolutionary language was still persistent , although the slogans were gone. The 1978 Constitution survived for four years before being superseded by the current Constitution of the People's Republic of China during the Deng Xiaoping era

11th National People's Congress

The 11th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China began its first session on March 5 2008. On March 15, Hu Jintao was re-elected as and as Chairman of the Central Military Commission, while Xi Jinping was elected as Vice-President.

No other candidates stood for the positions.

Welfare in the People's Republic of China

This article is about the welfare system in the People's Republic of China.

In pre-1980s reform China, the socialist state fulfilled the needs of society from cradle to grave. Child care, education, job placement, housing, subsistence, health care, and elder care were largely the responsibility of the work unit as administered through state-owned enterprises and agricultural communes and collectives. As those systems disappeared or were reformed, the "iron rice bowl" approach to welfare changed. Article 14 of the constitution stipulates that the state "builds and improves a welfare system that corresponds with the level of economic development."

In 2004 China experienced the greatest decrease in its poorest population since 1999. People with a per capita income of less than 668 renminbi decreased 2.9 million or 10 percent; those with a per capita income of no more than 924 RMB decreased by 6.4 million or 11.4 percent, according to statistics from the State Council’s Poverty Reduction Office.

Welfare reforms since the late 1990s have included unemployment insurance, medical insurance, workers’ compensation insurance, maternity benefits, communal pension funds, and individual pension accounts.

Vice President of the People's Republic of China

The Vice President of the People's Republic of China is a senior position in the government of the People's Republic of China.

Selection and Powers

The office was created by the . Formally, the Vice President is elected by the National People's Congress in accordance with Article 62 of the Constitution. In practice, this election falls into the category of . The candidate is recommended by the Presidium of the National People's Congress, which also theoretically has the power to recall the Vice President.

By law, the Vice President must be a Chinese citizen of 45 years of age or older. He or she cannot serve for over two terms, a term being the equivalent of one session of the NPC, which is five years.

The Vice President's duties include assisting the President, and replacing him should he resign or die in office. In reality the position of the Vice-President is basically ceremonial, and only the two most recent Vice-Presidents have been members of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's main decision makers.

Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China

The Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China , otherwise known as the Vice Premier of the , is a high-ranking executive assistant to the . There is an Executive Vice-Premier, who takes over duties of the Premier at the time of the latter's incapacity. In addition, there are numerous other Vice-Premiers who assume certain broad s.

Current Vice-Premiers, in order of rank, are Li Keqiang, Hui Liangyu, Zhang Dejiang and Wang Qishan.

In irregular instances, the position of an "Executive Vice-Premier" or "First Vice-Premier" has been named either to indicate degree of power, nominal power, or when the Premier is incapacitated and requires a full time assistant to carry out his regular duties. Notable Executive Vice-Premiers have included:
*Deng Xiaoping, during the illness of Zhou Enlai, 1973—1976, again after political rehabilitation under Premier Hua Guofeng, 1978—1983.
*Wan Li, under Premier Zhao Ziyang's second term, 1983-1988
*Yao Yilin, under Premier Li Peng's first term, 1988-1993
*Zhu Rongji, under Premier Li Peng's second term, 1993-1998
*Li Lanqing, under Premier Zhu Rongji, 1998-2003
*Huang Ju, under Premier Wen Jiabao, 2003-2007
*''The post was vacant between Huang's death and the 2008 National People's Congress.''
*Li Keqiang, under Premier Wen Jiabao, 2008-

List of Executive Vice-Premiers and Vice Premiers

Ordered in political position ranking

Civil service of the People's Republic of China

The civil service of the People's Republic of China consists of of all levels who run the day-to-day affairs in mainland China.


Civil servants are found in a well-defined system of ranks. The rank of a civil servant determines what positions he/she may assume in the government or the military, how much political power he/she gets, and the level of benefits in areas such as transportation and healthcare.

According to the ''Temporary Regulations for National Civil Servants'' , civil servants are put into a total of fifteen levels. The levels are:

* Premier of the People's Republic of China, Level 1
* Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China and members of the , Levels 2-3
* Leading roles of ministries or equivalents , or of or equivalents , Levels 3-4
* Assisting roles of ministries or equivalents , or of or equivalents , Levels 4-5
* Leading roles of departments or equivalents , or of or equivalents , or counsels Levels 5-7
* Assisting roles of departments or equivalents , of or equivalents , or assistant counsels Levels 6-8
* Leading roles of divisions or equivalents , of or equivalents , or consultants , Levels 7-10
* Assisting roles of divisions or equivalents , of or equivalents , or assistant consultants , Levels 8-11
* Leading roles of sections or equivalents , of or equivalents , Levels 9-12
* Assisting roles of sections or equivalents , of or equivalents , Levels 9-13
* Staff members , Levels 9-14
* Clerks , Levels 10-15


China has had a tradition of maintaining a large and well-organized civil service. In ancient times eligibility for employment in the civil service was determined by an Imperial examination system.

Foreign Minister of the People's Republic of China

The Foreign Minister of the People's Republic of China is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China and one of the country's most important posts. The Minister usually is also the member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.

Process of appointment

According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the Minister is nominated by the and confirmed by the National People's Congress or its .

List of Foreign Ministers

# Zhou Enlai
# Ji Pengfei
# Qiao Guanhua
# Wu Xueqian
# Qian Qichen
# Tang Jiaxuan
# Li Zhaoxing
# Yang Jiechi